For free distribution only, as a gift of Dhamma
© Amaravati Publications
"Do not rely upon what you have heard proclaimed,
or upon custom, or upon rumor, or upon scripture,
or inference or established principles, or clever reasoning,
or favoring a pet theory.
Do not be convinced by someone else's apparent intelligence, nor out of respect for a teacher ....
When you yourself know what is wrong, foolish and unworthy,
and what leads to harm and discontent, abandon it ....
And when you yourself know what is right, develop it."
A GREAT VARIETY of forms of religious practice are associated with the word 'Buddhism'. However, they all take Siddhattha Gotama, who lived and taught in northern India some 2,500 years ago, as their source or inspiration. It was he who in historical times became known as the 'Buddha' ... that is 'the Awakened One', one who has attained great wisdom through their own efforts ... a Master.
The Buddha did not write anything down, but left a remarkable legacy in the form of a teaching (the Dhamma) that was at first orally ... transmitted by the religious Order (the Sangha) that he founded and personally guided for forty-five years.
This Order has survived the centuries, preserving the wisdom of the Buddha in lifestyle as well as in words. To this day, these three elements ... the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha ... are known and respected by all Buddhists as 'The Three Refuges' or 'The Triple Gem'. They have also come to symbolize Wisdom, Truth and Virtue ... qualities that we can develop in ourselves.
After the Buddha's time, his teaching was carried from India throughout Asia, and even further. As it spread, it was affected by its encounters with local cultures, and several 'schools' of Buddhism eventually emerged, Broadly speaking, there are three such schools: Theravada ('The Teaching of the Elders'), which still thrives in Sri Lanka, Burma and Thailand; Mahayana ('The great vehicle'), which embraces the various traditions within China, Korea and Japan; and Vajrayana ('The diamond vehicle'), which is associated primarily with Tibet.
Teachers from all schools have made their way to the West. Some preserve their lineages as found in the country of origin, while others have adopted less traditional approaches. The approach and the quotations used below are from the Theravada.
THE BUDDHIST PATH
The Buddha taught a path of spiritual awakening ... a way of 'practice', that we can use in our daily lives. This 'Path of Practice' can be divided into three mutually supportive aspects - Virtue, Meditation and Wisdom.
"Where there is uprightness, wisdom is there,
and where there is wisdom, uprightness is there.
To the upright there is wisdom,
to the wise there is uprightness,
and wisdom and goodness are declared to be the best things in the world."
You can make a formal commitment to the Buddha's Path of Practice by requesting the Three Refuges and Five Precepts from a monk or nun at a Buddhist monastery, or by taking them by yourself at home. Taking the Refuges implies a commitment to live according to principles of Wisdom, Truth and Virtue, using the teachings and example of the Buddha. The Five Precepts are training rules to follow in daily life:
To refrain from killing living creatures
To refrain from taking what is not given
To refrain from sexual misconduct
To refrain from harsh and false speech
To refrain from taking intoxicating liquor and drugs
Someone living in this way develops the self-discipline and sensitivity necessary to cultivate meditation, the second aspect of the Path.
Meditation, as the term is used in common parlance, is the repeated focusing of attention upon an image, a word or a theme in order to calm the mind and consider the meaning of that image or word. In the Buddhist practice of insight meditation, this focusing of attention also has another purpose ... to more fully understand the nature of the mind.
This can be done by using the meditation object as a still reference point to help in revealing the attitudes that are otherwise buried beneath the mind's surface activity. The Buddha encouraged his disciples to use their own bodies and minds as objects of meditation. A common object, for example, is the sensation associated with the breath during the process of normal breathing.
If one sits still, closes the eyes and focuses on the breath, in due time clarity and calm will arise. In this state of mind, tensions, expectations and habitual moods can be more clearly discerned and, through the practice of gentle but penetrative inquiry, resolved.
The Buddha taught that it was possible to maintain meditation in the course of daily activity as well as while sitting still in one place. One can focus attention on the movement of the body, the physical feelings that arise, or the thoughts and moods that flow through the mind. This mobile attentiveness is called ‘mindfulness’.
The Buddha explained that through mindfulness one realizes an attention that is serene. Although it is centered on the body and mind it is dispassionate and not bound up with any- particular physical or mental experience. This detachment is a foretaste of what Buddhists call Nibbana (or Nirvana) - a state of peace and happiness independent of circumstances. Nibbana is a ‘natural’ state, that is, it is not something we have to add to our true nature, it is the way the mind is when it is free from pressure and confused habits. Just as waking up dispels the dream state naturally, the mind that has become clear through mindfulness is no longer over-shadowed by obsessive thoughts, doubts and worries.
However, although mindfulness is the basic tool to use, we generally need some pointers as to how to establish the right objectivity about ourselves and how to assess what mindfulness reveals. This is the function of the wisdom-teachings of the Buddha.
The most generally used wisdom-teachings of the Buddha are not statements about God or Ultimate Truth. The Buddha felt that such statements could lead to disagreement, controversy and even violence. Instead, Buddhist wisdom describes what we can all notice about life without having to adopt a belief.
The teachings are to be tested against one's experience. Different people may find different ways of expressing Truth; what really counts is the validity of the experience and whether it leads to a wiser and more compassionate way of living. The teachings then serve as tools to clear the mind of misunderstanding. When the mind is clear, Ultimate Truth, in whatever way one finds to express it, becomes apparent.